China’s GPS Challenger Takes Its Place On World Stage – Evaluation – Eurasia Assessment

By David H. Millner, Stephen Maksim, and Marissa Huhmann*

International navigation satellite tv for pc methods (GNSS) present a service many individuals take without any consideration. The GNSS functions individuals use fall into 5 main classes: location (figuring out a place), navigation (getting from one location to a different), monitoring (monitoring motion of individuals or objects), mapping (creating maps of the world), and timing (calculating time). Usually, a GNSS has a constellation of at the very least 24 satellites in medium-Earth orbit (about 12,550 miles excessive) unfold out world wide to ship international service.1 Such GNSS capabilities are thought-about so important that international locations and alliances are merely unwilling to depend on one another for a system that’s now thought-about indispensable to sovereignty. GNSS helps thousands and thousands of functions that monitor and analyze our on a regular basis lives—from farming, to finance, to dependable Web. Merely put, it has develop into an important service.

GNSS have been created virtually 50 years in the past when U.S. scientists pioneered a world positioning system (GPS). Right now, 4 international locations function GNSS: the USA has GPS, Russia has GLObal NAvigation Satellite tv for pc System (GLONASS), the European Union (EU) has Galileo, and China has the BeiDou Navigation Satellite tv for pc System, often known as “BeiDou.” Japan and India have regional methods, and even the UK is planning for its personal constellation since leaving the EU.2

With the launch of its closing satellite tv for pc to achieve full system functionality, China accomplished BeiDou in June 2020, and far has been fabricated from the system and its options to date.3 However BeiDou is just the most recent GNSS to return on-line since the USA developed GPS. Though a lot hypothesis and debate exist, it stays unclear if BeiDou will matter to the USA and different Western powers. An examination of the assorted sorts of GNSS reveals variations of their improvement and army use/adoption in addition to in worldwide response to them. This nearer look sheds mild on the doubtless impression of BeiDou, because it considers the system’s integration with China’s Belt and Highway Initiative (BRI), the connection with Russia and the EU, safety considerations, and relative accuracy. A cautious evaluation of BeiDou and the multi-GNSS setting reveals that, though BeiDou doesn’t characterize a technological coup for the Chinese language, it does represent an incremental erosion of American technical status by presenting a viable different to GPS in an necessary sector that billions of individuals world wide use each day.

GPS is the primary and nonetheless predominant GNSS—a lot in order that utilizing satellite tv for pc navigation is synonymous with the initialism GPS. GPS was created within the early Seventies, when the Division of Protection (DOD) wished to ensure a secure, accessible satellite tv for pc navigation system for army use. DOD launched its first Navigation System with Timing and Ranging satellite tv for pc in 1978; the 24-satellite system reached totally operational functionality (FOC) in 1993.4 DOD is consistently working to enhance its satellites and the system; the most recent block of GPS satellites, GPS III/IIIF, launched in 2018. These enhancements assist keep GPS because the gold commonplace of GNSS.5 As of June 2021, a complete of 31 operational satellites have been in orbit, together with outdated and new satellites and on-orbit spares.6 GPS at present delivers two ranges of service: Normal Positioning Service, which is out there to all customers on a steady, worldwide foundation, freed from any direct person costs; and Exact Positioning Service, whose entry is restricted to the U.S. Armed Forces, U.S. Federal businesses, and chosen allied armed forces and governments.7

Within the Nineteen Eighties, President Ronald Reagan promised civilians they may achieve entry to GPS, however a function known as Selective Availability intentionally degraded location accuracy. This intentional degradation of GPS indicators was meant to help nationwide safety, because the function allowed solely “U.S. army and allies to entry the second GPS sign for higher accuracy.”8 Nonetheless, the Selective Availability coverage elevated the error for civil and business customers by a substantial quantity: 50 meters horizontally and 100 vertically.9 Customers grew to become cautious of U.S. intentions and possession of GPS. In Might 2000, President Invoice Clinton signed a regulation discontinuing Selective Availability. Then, in 2007, DOD said it could purchase future satellites with out the function, and it has accomplished so with the GPS III/IIIF satellites. Though this shift from Selective Availability has elevated civil reliance on GPS, different international locations nonetheless have moved ahead with growing their very own GNSS in order to not depend on the U.S. system.

GPS was developed by the U.S. army; nevertheless, the system boasts availability to customers worldwide. The 2010 Nationwide House Coverage inspired GPS- and GNSS-related worldwide cooperation.10 The coverage directed the USA to “interact with international GNSS suppliers to encourage compatibility and interoperability, promote transparency in civil service provision, and allow market entry for U.S. trade.”11 The coverage additionally states that the USA could use “international positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) companies . . . to reinforce and strengthen the resiliency of GPS.”12

In step with its sample of imitating U.S. know-how, the Soviet Union determined to subject its personal GNSS. Growth of GLONASS started in 1976, solely 3 years after the USA began work on GPS.13 GLONASS offers “real-time positioning and pace information for floor, sea, and airborne objects world wide.”14

The primary technology of the GLONASS constellation was totally populated in 1996, however there was a spot in service between Kremlin governments: Solely 7 of 24 satellites have been nonetheless in operation in 2002, which harm the system’s credibility.15 Wanting to regain its earlier glory, the Russian Federation totally populated GLONASS, reaching FOC on December 8, 2011. The present technology as soon as once more incorporates a constellation of 24 satellites. Energetic satellites boast longer design life, superior electronics, extra succesful radios, and sturdier {hardware}.16 As within the case of GPS, army use and functions, reminiscent of precision-guided munitions, drove GLONASS necessities. GLONASS is an unabashedly army system, operated by the Russian Aerospace Protection Forces.17 As a result of the system is international, the Russian army makes use of GLONASS in operations worldwide, reminiscent of current actions in Syria.18 Adoption of GLONASS was gradual, even contained in the Soviet Union and Russia.19 Nonetheless, Russia pushed worldwide adoption across the time GLONASS regained full operational functionality.

An settlement in 2000 allowed China not solely to make use of GLONASS for primary navigation but additionally to subject GLONASS-guided munitions.20 A number of sweeping agreements with China in 2019 embrace each using GLONASS (dialogue of a earlier GLONASS-BeiDou settlement follows later on this article) and interoperation with floor radar stations constructed to help BeiDou.21 In 2008, Brazil signed up to make use of and assist develop GLONASS as a part of two main agreements on army know-how.22 In 2010, Russia signed an settlement to share the GLONASS high-precision sign with India.23 Additionally in 2010, Ukraine signed an settlement with Russia to assist develop GLONASS, after having agreed to assist the EU set up Galileo simply 5 years earlier than.24 Then, in 2013, Russia and Belarus signed a sweeping army and regulatory settlement that included GLONASS.25 On the buyer entrance, Garmin and plenty of cellphone producers started supporting each GPS and GLONASS in 2011. These mixed GPS/GLONASS multi-GNSS chipsets for cellphones and automobile navigation methods established the design paradigm utilized by receivers in frequent use right now that help GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou.26

Galileo is the European GNSS. The European Fee and European House Company constructed Galileo collectively to supply their member states with an unbiased, European different to GPS or GLONASS, as these methods will be degraded or denied by their house owners at any time (although the USA has since pledged to not degrade GPS).27 Galileo went dwell in 2016 and at present has 26 satellites in orbit; it should doubtless attain its aim of 30 satellites within the close to future, because it not too long ago suffered a launch delay.28 Galileo at present offers all of its deliberate companies, however efficiency can be enhanced when all satellites come on-line. Galileo delivers an open, free-to-the-public service and a extra correct Public Regulated Service that’s restricted to army and emergency companies.29

In distinction to its three “peer” companies, which tout precision-guided munitions that use a safe sign, Galileo is a “kinder, gentler” system run by civilians as an alternative of the army. Galileo has 28 associate nations, and its Public Regulated Service safety modules should, by regulation, be produced within the EU to safeguard the {hardware} and software program’s mental property. The regulated service necessities current obstacles to precision-guided munition producers, which would wish that info to implement Galileo-enabled steering of their weapons.30

Throughout the improvement of Galileo, vital tensions arose between the USA and the EU over the frequency of its Public Regulated Service. The EU had deliberate to make use of a frequency vary that overlapped GPS’s army frequency. The frequency overlap would have prevented the USA from jamming Galileo’s high-precision service in a wartime state of affairs with out additionally jamming an encrypted GPS frequency particular to the U.S. army. America additionally had critical considerations about China’s intentions to develop into a full member of the Galileo program. The EU ultimately agreed to change the deliberate frequencies and terminate Chinese language involvement.31

The EU cooperates with varied intergovernmental organizations and nations world wide to advertise Galileo and leverage it to assist EU companies.32 Galileo has already been profitable in receiving trade approval; in 2019, the know-how to obtain Galileo indicators was included into 1 billion mobile telephones.33 Given the traditionally cooperative nature of Galileo, in addition to its minimal militarization, Galileo will doubtless present the USA with useful augmentation to GPS.

China determined to develop BeiDou after the 1995–1996 Taiwan Strait Disaster, when an sudden disruption in GPS brought about the Individuals’s Liberation Army to lose monitor of its ballistic missiles fired over the Taiwan Strait.34 China determined it couldn’t afford to repeat such an incident and wanted to put money into its personal satellite-based PNT system.35 Despite the fact that China had a standing settlement with Russia to make use of GLONASS for primary navigation and GLONASS-guided munitions, China endured with its plan to develop BeiDou.36 Given China’s emergence on the world stage and want for recognition, this transfer isn’t a surprise; Beijing wishes a GNSS that it will probably keep full management of.

BeiDou is at present on its third technology of satellites. In 2000, BeiDou-1 was accomplished and commenced to supply PNT companies to China solely; in 2012, BeiDou-2 was accomplished and commenced to supply service to the Asia-Pacific area.37 The third and closing part of the challenge, BeiDou-3, hit a milestone in 2018 when it started providing companies globally. BeiDou-3’s preliminary system was accomplished with the launch of its closing satellite tv for pc in June 2020.38 BeiDou makes use of two totally different normal sorts of service: Radio Navigation Satellite tv for pc Service (RNSS) and Radio Willpower Satellite tv for pc Service (RDSS). RNSS features like different GNSS and was designed to have comparable efficiency. RDSS is considerably totally different: A floor station utilizing indicators from the BeiDou satellites calculates a person’s place. The RDSS strategy permits for large-volume message communication and prolonged protection.39 Nonetheless, any employment of BeiDou the place floor stations are situated permits the Chinese language authorities to watch a person’s location. Each RNSS and RDSS permit the person to ship communications by way of brief message service (SMS), a function distinctive among the many GNSS to BeiDou. The operational implications for such a function imply that the Chinese language authorities has a system to broadcast messages to any suitable BeiDou person on this planet. The potential functions for such a function are limitless.

Though each GNSS broadcasts a extra correct sign for under army and authorities use, BeiDou uniquely offers these delicate customers with details about the standing and present accuracy of the navigation sign in actual time.40 BeiDou has been extensively built-in with the Chinese language army since at the very least 2014, and the army makes use of the SMS function closely; it’s best for speaking amongst items and headquarters in distant areas. The army has additionally built-in BeiDou into its precision-guided munitions, together with ballistic and cruise missiles.41 Though China promotes BeiDou worldwide, particularly inside the Asia-Pacific area and BRI international locations, its most developed BeiDou relationship is with Pakistan. As of December 2018, as a part of a army cooperation settlement with China, Pakistan was the one nation permitted to make use of the BeiDou restrictive service.42 Pakistan additionally signed a first-of-its-kind settlement with China in 2013 to put in 5 BeiDou floor augmentation stations and one processing middle, permitting larger accuracy within the nation.43

On July 9, 2019, the Consultative Meeting of Saudi Arabia agreed on a draft memorandum of understanding to cooperate on the army use of BeiDou. The Saudi Ministry of Protection and the Tools Growth Division of China’s Central Navy Fee signed the memorandum. This settlement comes after the Second China-Arab States BeiDou Cooperation Discussion board, which befell April 1–2, 2020, in Tunis, Tunisia. Earlier than this occasion, the 2 international locations reportedly agreed in March 2019 to “deepen army collaboration to collectively promote regional peace and stability.”44

China aggressively markets BeiDou to the non-public sector, particularly as a part of its BRI in Asian international locations. In 2013, electronics leaders Qualcomm and Samsung collaborated to carry to market the primary smartphones that included BeiDou; their smartphones and tablets have been additionally the primary to trace three GNSS—GLONASS, GPS, and BeiDou.45 Collectively, this marked an necessary milestone for inclusion of BeiDou on this planet client electronics market in addition to for the synthesis of a number of PNT methods on handheld units. BeiDou made the transition to client electronics quicker than did GLONASS, having entered the market at a later level within the maturity of handheld electronics after two different GNSS (GPS and GLONASS) had established demand and precedent. Smartphones started utilizing Galileo in 2016, and it’s now frequent for client units to trace utilizing a number of GNSS.46 Clearly, the buyer smart-electronics market noticed worth in using different sources of PNT.

By the tip of 2019, greater than 70 p.c of Chinese language smartphones utilized BeiDou for positioning companies—with a purported $57 billion in items and companies tied to the potential. China goals to make use of BeiDou, along with its fifth-generation cellphone know-how, to dominate the marketplace for telecommunications companies, which China envisions will embrace next-generation applied sciences reminiscent of autonomous automobiles. Agreements to make use of BeiDou underneath China’s expansive BRI have already been signed with 120 companions.47 Greater than 30 international locations, 400 million customers, and 6.5 million automobiles use BeiDou.48 With out abandoning GPS, due to multi-GNSS radio chipsets, the world has additionally embraced BeiDou.

Along with being a full-fledged GNSS, BeiDou is a essential piece within the digital structure of China’s BRI. Consequently, China aggressively promotes BeiDou as a part of its full system of wares when it markets to different international locations. China has certainly seen a surge of exercise relating to BeiDou inside the worldwide group previously few years. Safety professionals ought to anticipate extra international locations adopting the system or coordinating with China now that BeiDou has achieved FOC.

Considerably surprisingly, Russia is a kind of international locations that, regardless of having GLONASS, signed a joint GLONASS-BeiDou cooperation and compatibility settlement in 2015. This settlement was adopted by a joint Chinese language-Russian Silk Highway Mission that “marked the primary, large-scale Sino-Russian effort to share, examine, and systematize satellite tv for pc information” in 2017.49 By 2018, China and Russia have been capable of agree on the identical chipset, giving customers “entry to the overall of GLONASS-BeiDou zone protection, which spans throughout 40 functioning satellites” and “encompasses the Earth’s whole floor,” in response to GLONASS President Alexander Gurko.50 This transfer created a technological interdependency between two international locations which have lengthy struggled to take care of a peaceable border.

As a GNSS, BeiDou affords a slight enchancment over GLONASS by way of accuracy and availability. When thought-about as a whole system with further floor antennas, sign post-processing, and communications, BeiDou is superior to GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo. Time will inform if integration with the BRI makes BeiDou extra—or much less—interesting to the world.

China’s relationship with the EU’s Galileo is considerably murkier. China’s aborted participation in Galileo not solely gave China BeiDou’s technological underpinnings but additionally left it seemingly unencumbered by any fallout on the worldwide scene. Evaluating the army impression of Galileo and BeiDou instantly is troublesome as a result of Galileo is civilian-run and never well-suited or marketed for weapons methods. Galileo will not be a part of a broad infrastructure initiative like BeiDou is with the BRI. The EU offers Galileo to the worldwide group with out vital installations in international territory or a political agenda; it doesn’t appear fascinated about advertising and marketing Galileo as a alternative for GPS however relatively views Galileo as an augmentation or “kinder” different (per advertising and marketing). Within the business area, Galileo, very like BeiDou, has been extensively accepted within the worldwide market for incorporation into each {hardware} and software program functions. This stage of incorporation will doubtless soften any political or financial impression from BeiDou on the USA just by broadening the competitors.

In contrast to the Huawei 5G mobile community—one other a part of China’s BRI that the U.S. Authorities is actively campaigning in opposition to in associate nations because of safety considerations—BeiDou doesn’t pose an apparent safety menace to customers outdoors of Asia, the place BeiDou floor stations are put in. Though considerations abound that the navigation sign might be able to set up malware right into a person’s system, such risk is very unlikely, in response to trade consultants. Nonetheless, malware could possibly be put in via the BeiDou receiver chip, particularly in a Chinese language-manufactured system, or if the system makes use of the two-way transmission messaging service. Two-way transmission is important for BeiDou to watch the situation of the person and supply enhanced, post-processed place accuracy. Moreover, most smartphone producers should not anticipated to make the most of BeiDou’s SMS performance as a result of the service requires a considerable amount of energy and isn’t sensible in a nondedicated system.51 Thus, whereas many smartphones in the USA can already make use of BeiDou as a GNSS, there may be little safety danger to U.S.-based customers, as U.S. regulation doesn’t permit the Chinese language floor stations, that are required to trace BeiDou customers, to be put in in U.S. territory.52 The normal one-way listening exercise of receiving PNT is inherently secure from a cyber-intrusion standpoint.

Demand for elevated location accuracy—already a driving requirement—spurs innovation and competitors in GNSS design. Measurements of accuracy rely closely on the applying and methodology. When solely counting on a real-time repair from orbiting satellites, all 4 GNSS have roughly comparable efficiency, provided that GLONASS is closing the efficiency hole.53 Nonetheless, including terrestrial antennas and sign post-processing, options that BeiDou is providing proper now, guarantees orders of magnitude enhanced location accuracy that the physics of atmospherics and house flight forestall, thus enabling functions reminiscent of self-driving automobiles that the general public yearns for.54 The brand new capabilities will differentiate the following technology of GNSS.

The fielding of contemporary precision-guided munitions is the obvious army implication of BeiDou, although China has had guided munitions with that functionality for a very long time—first via GPS and later via a diplomatic settlement with Russia. The completion of BeiDou does have some doubtlessly optimistic elements for the USA and different international opponents. BeiDou will present redundancy for each civilian and army functions worldwide; most business know-how now incorporates a number of GNSS to make the most of that redundancy. This redundancy can have highly effective benefits, like having the ability to obtain extra satellite tv for pc indicators whereas in an city canyon or, whereas in open areas, getting extra correct positional information by utilizing a number of GNSS. Militaries and governments worldwide can use BeiDou for redundancy as effectively. For instance, American U-2 Dragon Girl pilots have been approved to make use of multi-GNSS as a backup navigation system in case the plane’s GPS fails.55 Different U.S. army items might simply make the most of BeiDou by incorporating comparable business applied sciences into their toolkits. America ought to contemplate permitting the army to make use of multi-GNSS receivers produced by a trusted producer.

Continued and diversified funding in house by different international locations, particularly friends and near-peers, reduces the strategic benefit of “nuking house,” whether or not actually or figuratively. Whereas in occasions previous the overwhelming superiority and variety of U.S. space-based platforms made the house area itself a ripe goal in a scorching battle, worldwide dependence on house, in addition to the price of repopulating constellations, acts as an incentive to protect house as a world frequent.

Early on, the USA loved a just about unchallenged higher hand, as GPS was the gold commonplace of GNSS; this predominance made different nations depending on the USA. That this reliance created rigidity in worldwide relations is obvious via the existence of now-multiple allied and adversary GNSS. When solely GPS and GLONASS have been accessible, international locations nervous about their reliance on only one or two methods. Now a strong quorum of GNSS offers all international locations, each these with and with out their very own methods, the next diploma of confidence that they will plan on at the very least one system being accessible if one other goes down.

Competitors breeds innovation, although, and, even earlier than BeiDou, GPS competed with each GLONASS and Galileo in a market that required fixed enhancements. That mentioned, BeiDou could have utilized new stress. The latest GPS satellites (GPS III, which launched in 2018) could have thrice higher accuracy, as much as eight occasions improved anti-jamming capabilities, and an extended lasting spacecraft.56 With a number of international methods at present on-line, it behooves the U.S. militarily to make sure that GPS stays the GNSS of alternative. One addition in GPS III is a brand new sign that may “make it the primary GPS satellite tv for pc broadcasting a suitable sign with different worldwide GNSS, like Galileo, enhancing connectivity for civilian customers.”57 In fact, innovation requires recent capital. The U.S. army was projected to spend $1.8 billion in fiscal 12 months 2020 for GPS III, a determine that may doubtless improve as the USA contends with different GNSS.58 America ought to deal with constructing probably the most dependable, correct, and trusted supply of PNT. Copying BeiDou’s two-way communication technique of delivering improved positioning accuracy at the price of revealing person location and expensive linear scalability will not be a successful technique in an increasing GNSS market.

As worldwide reliance on GNSS expands, the criticality of those methods to a number of aspects of contemporary life will proceed to evolve; in consequence, questions of sovereignty will loom as this essential infrastructure will hold, uncovered, within the international commons of inside house. Tellingly, it was “want for political sovereignty and management over a essential infrastructure” that sustained Galileo via years of strained planning and improvement. America ought to count on extra nations to comprehend that relying on one other’s GNSS makes a rustic precisely that—dependent. 59 If China had determined to forgo pursuing a GNSS when the USA, EU, and Russian Federation had pursued theirs, such avoidance might have been interpreted as an indication of weak point or inferiority, particularly in such a excessive “face tradition.” In spite of everything, China thought-about the publicity of its dependence on GPS to be an “unforgettable humiliation.”60 As a result of an emphasis on public picture and a protracted societal reminiscence are main elements of Chinese language tradition, the USA ought to count on that China will try to by no means repeat this error.

Inspecting different GNSS applications affords some distinctive insights into what the USA ought to count on with BeiDou. Evaluating BeiDou with GLONASS and Galileo reveals that, though the Chinese language system is not going to trigger a technological sea change within the GNSS ecosystem, BeiDou is critical and deserves consideration, because it brings each safety considerations and advantages to the USA. By the lens of Nice Energy competitors, BeiDou signifies one other incremental erosion of the standing of the USA as the only superpower. China now affords sympathetic nations a viable GNSS different to GPS with extremely aggressive options that primarily didn’t exist earlier than. Globally, GPS has been the de facto alternative for PNT companies as a result of GLONASS was a markedly inferior service, and Galileo is just now coming into its personal. BeiDou adjustments this establishment—it’s clearly a greater different than Galileo and GLONASS.

Regardless of GLONASS’s rocky begin, Russia was ultimately profitable in fielding its system and garnering worldwide cooperation and use of its GNSS, together with sharing GLONASS-enabled precision-guided munitions. Nonetheless, whereas Russia broke GPS’s monopoly, it didn’t characterize a elementary shift in the established order, neither was it an enough alternative for GPS technologically. China has huge financial, technological, and political benefits over Russia to hurry the adoption of BeiDou as an (if not the) worldwide commonplace of GNSS.

Galileo, set to achieve FOC quickly, could also be aptly described as a demilitarized GPS with out the political legal responsibility of single-country possession. Galileo was rapidly adopted by trade, and with multi-GNSS receivers already frequent, inclusion of BeiDou in most units virtually ensures that BeiDou will develop into the trade commonplace. It’s, nevertheless, unlikely that BeiDou will displace GPS because the GNSS of alternative for both army or civilian features worldwide—BeiDou will doubtless develop into simply one other software within the equipment for many functions.

BeiDou doesn’t pose a safety menace for American customers as a result of the USA is not going to permit BeiDou floor stations in its territory; nevertheless, for nations collaborating in China’s BRI and making the most of the extra functionality that floor stations supply, safety is a priority. These nations are sacrificing privateness for entry to superior service. Geopolitically, China has already offered entry to its military-only sign to Pakistan and Saudi Arabia, permitting these international locations to make use of BeiDou-enabled precision-guided munitions, which needn’t depend on different international GNSS, thus complicating any U.S. effort to disclaim these nations military-grade PNT capabilities instantly via GPS.

BeiDou brings some advantages to the USA and the worldwide group. Multi-GNSS receivers present redundancy, further options, and higher positional accuracy, and BeiDou solely deepens these benefits. Chinese language funding in BeiDou additionally reduces the chance of battle within the house area, since bodily destruction of any satellites places different satellites in that orbit in danger, making kinetic battle in house a shakier proposition. Lastly, BeiDou forces all methods to innovate or danger changing into out of date. America ought to make the most of the advantages BeiDou offers whereas sustaining a vigilant eye on the safety threats and implications that it brings. With the celebrated work of pioneering GPS full, many different international locations now be a part of the USA in house, vying for dominance in navigation. The Nation would profit from continued technological advances in GPS to maintain it the gold commonplace of GNSS on this more and more aggressive subject. 

*Concerning the authors: Commander David H. Millner, USN, is the Senior U.S. Protection Official/Protection Attaché in Albania. Main Stephen Maksim, USSF, is Chief of the Engineering Liaison Workplace on the Air Pressure Nuclear Weapons Middle. Lieutenant Commander Marissa Huhmann, USN, is at present serving as an Assistant Public Affairs Officer at U.S. Pacific Fleet.

Supply: This text was printed in Joint Pressure Quarterly 105, which is printed by the Nationwide Protection College.


1 “How GPS Works,”, n.d., accessible at <>.

2 Callum Hoare, “UK Galileo Substitute to Combine with U.S. GPS as Brexit Conjures up ‘New Relationship,’” Specific, December 10, 2019, accessible at <>.

3 Andrew Jones, “Ultimate Beidou-3 Satellite tv for pc Reaches Operational Orbit, China’s Launch Websites Gear Up for July Missions,” House News, June 30, 2020, accessible at <>.

4 Nationwide Aeronautics and House Administration (NASA), “International Positioning System Historical past,” n.d., accessible at <>.

5 J. David Grossman, “The Path to a Extra Resilient and Sturdy GPS,” C4ISRNET, April 22, 2021, accessible at <>.

6 “House Section,”, n.d., accessible at <>.

7 NASA, “International Positioning System Historical past.”

8 GIS Geography, “Selective Availability in International Positioning System (GPS),” n.d., accessible at <>.

9 Ibid.

10 Nationwide House Coverage of the USA of America (Washington, DC: The White Home, June 28, 2010), accessible at <>.

11 “Worldwide Cooperation,”, n.d., accessible at <>.

12 Nationwide House Coverage of the USA of America.

13 Richard B. Langley, “GLONASS: Previous, Current and Future: An Various and Complement to GPS,” GPS World 28, no. 11 (2017), 44–49, accessible at <>.

14 “Russian Armed Forces Use Glonass Satellites for Aiming in Syria,” GPS Each day, Might 17, 2016, accessible at <>.

15 Langley, “GLONASS: Previous, Current and Future.”

16 Ibid.

17 “Russia Launches One Extra Satellite tv for pc to GLONASS Fleet,” Geospatial World, Might 30, 2016, accessible at <https://www.geospatialworld.internet/information/russia-adds-one-more-satellite-to-glonass-fleet/>.

18 “Russian Armed Forces Use Glonass Satellites for Aiming in Syria.”

19 Langley, “GLONASS: Previous, Current and Future.”

20 B. Rivers, “PRC, Russia Near GLONASS Settlement,” Journal of Digital Protection, 2000.

21 See “Putin Approves Ratification of GLONASS, BeiDou Cooperation Settlement with China,” Russia & CIS Basic Newswire, 2019; “Russia Will Be In a position to Use 3 Chinese language Floor Stations to Right Satellite tv for pc Alerts—Roscosmos,” Russia & CIS Basic Newswire, 2019.

22 Imanuela Ionescu, “Brazil-Russia Navy-Technical Cooperation: A Fruit of the Put up–Chilly Warfare World Order,” Navy Assessment 98, no. 6 (2018), 66–79.

23 “Russia, India Ink Settlement to Share GLONASS Alerts,” Mint, December 21, 2010, accessible at <>.

24 “Ukraine-Russia GLONASS Settlement,” Ukraine Basic Newswire, 2010.

25 “Russia, Belarus to Cooperate in Utilizing GLONASS Satellite tv for pc Navigation System—Settlement,” Russia & CIS Enterprise and Monetary Newswire, 2013.

26 Langley, “GLONASS: Previous, Current and Future.”

27 European House Company (ESA), “Why Europe Wants Galileo,” n.d., accessible at <>.

28 “Soyuz Launch from Kourou Postponed Till 2021, 2 Others to Proceed,” House Each day, Might 19, 2020, accessible at <>; European Union Company for the House Programme (EUSPA), “Constellation Data,” accessible at <>; ESA, “What Is Galileo?” n.d., accessible at <>.

29 EUSPA, “Providers,” n.d., accessible at <>; Jordan Wilson, China’s Various to GPS and Its Implications for the USA, Workers Analysis Report (Washington, DC: U.S.-China Financial and Safety Assessment Fee, January 5, 2017), accessible at <>.

30 Tim Vasen, “Is NATO Prepared for Galileo?” The Journal of the JAPCC 28 (Spring/Summer time 2019), accessible at <>. On the time of this publication, the creator of this text was not conscious of any precision-guided munitions designed to make use of Galileo’s Public Regulated Service, although it’s doubtless they’re being developed by European producers.

31 “EU, U.S. Cut up over Galileo M-Code Overlay,” GPS World, 2002.

32 EUSPA, “Worldwide Co-operation,” n.d., accessible at <>.

33 EUSPA, “Galileo Is the European International Satellite tv for pc-Primarily based Navigation System,” up to date September 16, 2021, accessible at <>.

34 Minnie Chan, “‘Unforgettable Humiliation’ Led to Growth of GPS Equal,” South China Morning Put up, November 13, 2009, accessible at <>.

35 Ibid.

36 Rivers, “PRC, Russia Near GLONASS Settlement.”

37 Rui Li et al., “Advances in BeiDou Navigation Satellite tv for pc System (BDS) and Satellite tv for pc Navigation Augmentation Applied sciences,” Satellite tv for pc Navigation 1, no. 12 (2020), accessible at <>.

38 Jones, “Ultimate Beidou-3 Satellite tv for pc Reaches Operational Orbit.”

39 Rui C. Barbosa, “Chinese language Bolster Navigation System with Twin Beidou Launch,” NASA Spaceflight, November 22, 2019, accessible at <>.

40 Ajey Lele, “House Safety Dilemma: India and China,” Astropolitics 17, no. 1 (2019), 23–37, accessible at <>.

41 Kevin McCauley, “Placing Precision in Operations: Beidou Satellite tv for pc Navigation System,” China Transient 14, no. 16 (August 22, 2014), accessible at <>.

42 Maria Abi-Habib, “China’s ‘Belt and Highway’ Plan in Pakistan Takes a Navy Flip,” New York Instances, December 19, 2018.

43 Deng Xiaoci, “Pakistan 1st International Nation to Absolutely Profit from China’s BeiDou System,” International Instances, Might 17, 2017.

44 RWR Advisory Group, “Saudi Arabia Agrees to Cooperate within the Navy Use of China’s Beidou Navigation Satellite tv for pc System,” July 11, 2019, accessible at <>.

45 “Qualcomm Collaborates with Samsung to Be First to Make use of BeiDou for Location-Primarily based Cell Knowledge,” GPS World, November 22, 2013, accessible at <>; David Manners, “Qualcomm, Samsung Add BeiDou to Glonass and GPS for Extra Exact Location Monitoring,” Electronics Weekly, November 22, 2013, accessible at <>.

46 “1 Billion Now Use Galileo Smartphones,” GPS World, September 10, 2019, accessible at <>.

47 Jonathan Shieber, “China Nears Completion of Its GPS Competitor, Growing the Potential for Web Balkanization,” Tech Crunch, December 28, 2019, accessible at <>.

48 P.W. Singer and Taylor A. Lee, “China’s Model of GPS Is Nearly Full. Right here’s What That Means,” Standard Science, March 31, 2020, accessible at <>.

49 Mark Episkopos, “Is This the Actual Russia-China Alliance America Ought to Worry?” The Nationwide Curiosity, December 16, 2018, accessible at <>.

50 Ibid.

51 Jim Mollenkopf, Senior Director, Strategic Growth Qualcomm Authorities Applied sciences, interview with U.S.-China Financial and Safety Assessment Fee workers, October 14, 2016; David Stelpstra, geodetic engineer, TomTom NV, interview with fee workers, October 14, 2016; Engineer, Qualcomm, Inc., interview with fee workers, August 19, 2016.

52 Wilson, China’s Various to GPS.

53 Alan Cameron, “K2 Will Drive GLONASS Underneath 1M,” GPS World, June 20, 2019, accessible at <>; EUSPA, “Providers”; Wilson, China’s Various to GPS; Lele, “House Safety Dilemma.”

54 Wilson, China’s Various to GPS.

55 Eric Tegler, “Why Are U-2 Jet Pilots Carrying Garmin Satellite tv for pc Navigation Smartwatches?” Ars Technica, March 13, 2020, accessible at <>.

56 Alan Cameron, “Advantages Coming from GPS III Constellation,” GPS World, April 1, 2019, accessible at <>.

57 Lockheed Martin, “GPS III/IIIF: The Subsequent Era of Positioning, Navigation, and Timing,” accessible at <>.

58 Stephen M. McCall and Brendan W. McGarry, “FY2020 Nationwide Safety House Price range Request: An Overview,” Congressional Analysis Service, June 7, 2019, accessible at <>.

59 Ivan G. Petrovski, GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou for Cell Units: From Immediate to Exact Positioning (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge College Press, 2014), xvii.

60 Chan, “Unforgettable Humiliation.”

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